Arthmetic, Absolute Truth, Mathematical Truth, Degree of Truth, Judgement, Understanding, 2+2=4
Much Mind Mind Chronicle People's Emotions Top Desires Global Awareness-Attention Terrorism Threat Assessment Mind Hat

Ed's Favorite Quotations. Emphasis added. References below.

ARITHMETIC
TOPIC ARISTOTLE GO RENÉ DESCARTES GO PASCAL GO GEORGE BERKELEY GO VOLTAIRE GO WILLIAM JAMES GO GEORGE SANTAYANA GO BERTRAND RUSSELL GO KARL R. POPPER GO GEORGE ORWELL GO PETER F. DRUCKER GO JEAN BAUDRILLARD GO ROGER PENROSE GO RALPH NADER GO
Arithmetic
Axiom
Principles
Absolute Truth
Mathematics
Mathematical
 Truth
Understanding
Judgment
Human Insight
Meaning
Marks
Useful
Free
Misunderstanding
Irrational

Degree of Truth
Mental Operations
Matrix
Code
Reiteration
Meaning
Mergers
Synergy
Contracts

1+1+1+1
1+1=2

2+2=3
2+2=4
2+2=5
2+3=5
2x2=4
2x2=
7
The Metaphysics.

" . . . [H]owever much things may be 'so and not so,' yet differences of degree are inherent in the nature of things. For we should not say that 2 and 3 are equally even; nor are he who thinks that 4 is 5, and he who thinks it is 1000, equally wrong: hence if they are not equally wrong, the one is clearly less wrong, and so more right."1a

Meditations.

" . . . [W]ether I am awake or sleeping, two and three added together always make five, and a square never has more than four sides; and it does not seem possible that truths so apparent can be suspected of any falsity or uncertainty."1a

Pensées.

"Even fewer people study man than mathematics."1a

Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues.

" . . . [W]hen words are used without a meaning, you may put them together as you please, without danger of running into a contradiction. You may say, for example, that twice two is equal to seven, so long as you declare you do not take the words of that proposition in their usual acceptation, but for marks of you know not what."1a

Philosophical Dictionary.

"Necessary. 'Beware of all the inventions of charlatans . . . and believe that two and two make four."1a  

The Principles of Psychology (Volume 2).

"The same objects, compared in the same way, always give the same results . . .
This last principle, which we may call the axiom of constant result, holds good throughout all our mental operations . . ."2d*

"This PRINCIPLE OF MEDIATE COMPARISON might be briefly . . . expressed by the formula "more than the more is more than the less� . . .
. . . This AXIOM OF SKIPPED INTERMEDIARIES or of TRANSFERRED RELATIONS occurs . . . in logic as the fundamental principle of inference . . . It seems to be on the whole the broadest and deepest law of man's thought."2e*

"How could our notion that one and one are eternally and necessarily two ever maintain itself in a world where every time we add one drop of water to another we get not two but one again? . . . At most we could then say that one and one are usually two."2f*

The Life of Reason.

IV  REASON IN SCIENCE

"The great glory of mathematics, like that of virtue, is to be useful while remaining free."2a

"Is four really twice two? The answer is not that most people say so, but that, in saying so, I am not misunderstanding myself."2b

"The darkest spots are in man himself, in his fitful, irrational disposition."2c

Bertrand Russell on God and Religion

"I am persuaded that there is absolutely no limit to the absurdities that can, by government action, come to be generally believed. Give me an adequate army . . .  and I will undertake . . . to make the majority of the population believe that two and two are three . . . "1a  

The Open Society and Its Enemies

"The fact that a statement is true may sometimes help to explain why it appears to us as self-evident. This is the case with '2+2=4' . . . But the opposite is clearly not the case. The fact that a sentence appears to some or even to all of us to be 'self-evident' . . . is no reason why it should be true."1a

Nineteen Eighty-Four.  

"BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU."1a
"FREEDOM IS SLAVERY."1b
"TWO AND TWO MAKE FIVE."1c*
 

Technology Management and Society.

"The kindergarten stage is over. We�re past the time when everybody was terribly impressed by the computer�s ability to do two plus two in fractions of a nanosecond."1a

Simulacra and Simulation.

"Clones. Cloning. . .
The Father and the Mother have disappeared, not in the service of an aleatory liberty of the subject, but in the service of a matrix called code. No more mother, no more father: a matrix. And it is the matrix, that of the genetic code, that now infinitely 'gives birth' based on a functional mode purged of all aleatory sexuality."
1a

" . . . [C]loning enshrines the reiteration of the same: 1+1+1+1, etc. . . .
This is how one puts an end to totality. If all information can be found in each of its parts, the whole loses its meaning. . ."
1b

"What is lost is the original . . ."1c

Shadows of the Mind.

"Understanding is, after all, what science is all about -- and science is a great deal more than mere mindless computation."1a 

"Gödel's argument does not argue in favour of there being inaccessible mathematical truths. What it does argue for, on the other hand, is that human insight lies beyond formal argument and beyond computable procedures. Moreover, it argues powerfully for the very existence of the Platonic mathematical world. Mathematical truth is not determined arbitrarily by the rules of some 'man-made' formal system, but has an absolute nature, and lies beyond any such system of specifiable rules."1b* 

The Ralph Nader Reader.

"Conglomerate mergers are usually justified by the magic of synergy, that 2+2=5. To be sure, economies of scale require that firms be large enough to be efficient. But firms can also be too large to be efficient (or 2+2=3)."1e*

"With 99 percent of all contracts not negotiated -- e.g., insurance policies, credit card conditions, mortgage instruments, shrink-wrap licenses, and installment loan agreements -- sellers demand that consumers sign on the dotted line and give up rights, remedies, and bargaining."1g

 
Aristotle. The Metaphysics. (Penguin Classics.)
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Aristotle. The Metaphysics. Books I-IX. (The Loeb Classical Library).
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Aristotle. The Metaphysics. Books X-XIV. (The Loeb Classical Library).
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Ren� Descartes. Discourse on Method and the Meditations (Penguin Classics).
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  Ren� Descartes. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy.
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Blaise Pascal. Pens�es.  (Penguin Classics.)
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George Berkeley (1685-1753). Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by Howard Robinson. Text, A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop (The Complete Works of George Berkeley, 1948-57, Nelson). Editorial matter, Howard Robinson, 1996. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1999. 
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Voltaire. Philosophical Dictionary. (Penguin Classics.)
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William James. The Principles of Psychology (Volume 1). 
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William James. The Principles of Psychology (Volume 2). 
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George Santayana. The Life of Reason.
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Bertrand Russell on God and Religion. Al Sekel (ed.).
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Karl R. Popper. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Volume 1: The Spell of Plato.
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Karl R. Popper. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Volume 2: The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath.
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George Orwell. Nineteen Eighty-Four.
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  Peter F. Drucker. Technology Management and Society: Essays.
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Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994. Originally published in French by Éditions Galilée, 1981.
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Roger Penrose. Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness.
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Ralph Nader. The Ralph Nader Reader. Foreword by Barbara Ehrenreich. Ralph Nader, 2000. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.
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* Italics in the original. 1 Aristotle. The Metaphysics. Books I-IX. Translation by Hugh Tredennick. G.P. Goold, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933, 1989. (The Loeb Classical Library.)
a Book IV, at 181.
1 René Descartes (1596-1650). Discourse on Method and the Meditations (1637). Translated with an Introduction by F.E. Sutcliffe. F.E. Sutcliffe, 1968. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd.
a First Meditation: About the Things We May Doubt, at 98.
1 Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). Pensées (1670). Translated with an Introduction by A.J. Krailsheimer. A.J. Krailsheimer, 1966, 1995. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd.
a Human Nature, Style, Jesuits, etc., at 217.
1 George Berkeley (1685-1753). Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by Howard Robinson. Text, A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop (The Complete Works of George Berkeley, 1948-57, Nelson). Editorial matter, Howard Robinson, 1996. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1999.
Part I:
The Main Text
a
Seventeen objections to his theory and the answers to them, at 58.
1 Voltaire (1694-1778). Philosophical Dictionary (1764). Edited and translated by Theodore Besterman, 1972. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a Nécessaire: Necessary, at 325.

1 Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russell on God and Religion. Edited by Al Sekel.
a An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish, at 225.

1 The Life of Reason. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998. [Originally published in 5 v.: The Life of Reason, or, The Phases of Human Progress. New York: C. Scribners' Sons, 1905-6.]
IV REASON IN SCIENCE
a Chapter 6: Dialectic, at 438.
b
Chapter 7: Pre-Rational Morality, at 444.
c Chapter 10: The Validity of Science
, at 490.

1 Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russell on God and Religion. Edited by Al Sekel.
a An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish, at 225.

1 Karl R. Popper. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Volume II: The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath. Fifth ed. (revised). Karl Raimund Popper, 1962, 1966. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
a Chapter 11: The Aristotelian Roots of Hegelianism, Note 42, at 291.
1 George Orwell (1903-1950). Nineteen Eighty-Four. Eric Blair, 1949. Estate of the late Sonia Brownwell Orwell, 1987. Note on the Text by Peter Davison, 1989.London, UK: Penguin Group, 1989, 1990. (First published by Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., 1949.)
a Big Brother, at 3.
b Slogans of the Party, at 18.
c "2+2=5," at 290 and 303.
1 Peter F. Drucker (b. 1909). Technology Management and Society: Essays. Peter F. Drucker, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1977.a Ch. 10: The Manager and the Moron, at 173. First published in The McKinsey Quarterly, Spring 1967. 1 Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994. Originally published in French by Éditions Galilée, 1981.
a Clone Story, at 96-97.
b Ibid., at 97.
c
Ibid., at 99.
1 Roger Penrose. Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness. Roger Penrose, 1994. London, UK: Vintage, Random House UK Limited, 1995. First published by Oxford University Press, 1994.
a Preface, at vii.
b What New Physics We Need to Understand the Mind: Implications?, at 418.
1 Ralph Nader. The Ralph Nader Reader. Foreword by Barbara Ehrenreich. Ralph Nader, 2000. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.
On the  Corporate State and the Corporatizing of America
e Is Bigness Bad for Business? Co-Authored by Mark Green (1979), at 106.
On the Information Age
g
Digital Democracy in Action (1996), at 401.