Free Trade, Free Private Exchange, Markets, Traders, Credit, Debt, Competition, Commerce
Much Mind Mind Chronicle People's Emotions Top Desires Global Awareness-Attention Terrorism Threat Assessment Mind Hat

Ed's Favorite Quotations�. Emphasis added. References below.

FREE TRADE
TOPIC CONFUCIUS GO ARISTOTLE GO THE NEW TESTAMENT GO THE KORAN GO SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS GO ADAM SMITH GO IMMANUEL KANT GO THOMAS PAINE GO JOHN STUART MILL GO KARL MARX GO FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE GO OSWALD SPENGLER GO JOSEPH A. SCHUMPETER GO JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES GO MARTIN HEIDEGGER GO FRIEDRICH A. HAYEK GO ERICH FROMM GO KARL R. POPPER GO AYN RAND GO JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH GO PETER F. DRUCKER GO MILTON FRIEDMAN GO ALBERT CAMUS GO HOWARD ZINN GO GEORGE SOROS GO EDWARD ELIE AYOUB GO
Free Trade
Free
  Exchange
Marketplace
Profit
Price
Buying-Selling
Traders
Entrepreneurs
Labor
Capitalism
Credit System
Debt
Foreign Debt
Interest
Petty Usurers
Indentured
  Servitude
Competition
Usurpation
Cheating
Commercial
  Ideals
False
  Theories
Moral
  Scruples
Dog-Eat-Dog
  World
Embryo Slaves
Servitude
Rancor
Malice
Tyranny
Reflexivity
Boom/Bust
Calculative
  Thinking

The Analects.

"The Master said: 'If one acts with a view to profit, there will be much resentment.'" [4:12]1a

"The Master said: 'The gentleman is familiar with what is right, just as the small man is familiar with profit.'" [4:16]1b

"Zigong said: �Suppose there is a beautiful jade here, does one wrap it up, put it in a box and keep it, or does one try to get a good price and sell it?� The Master said: 'Sell it of course, sell it of course! I am one who is waiting for a price.'" [9:13]1c

"Jie Yu, the madman of Chu, passed Master Kong, singing:

Phoenix, phoenix,
What a decline of virtue! . . .

Master Kong got down and wished to speak with him. But he hurried off and avoided him . . . " [18:5]1d

 Politics.

"The trade of the petty usurer is hated with most reason: it makes a profit from currency itself, instead of making it from the process which currency was meant to serve"1a

"The market-place for buying and selling should be separate from [the] public square and at a distance from it . . . "1b

The New Testament.

"And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers . . . And the scribes and chief priests . . . sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine" [St. Mark 11:15-18].1a

The Koran.

"Do not devour one another's property by unjust means, nor bribe with it the judges in order that you may wrongfully and knowingly usurp the possessions of other men." [The Cow 2:188].1a

"Give orphans the property which belongs to them. Do not exchange their valuables for worthless things or cheat them of their possession; for this would surely be a great sin." [Women 4:3].1b

On Law, Morality, and Politics.

" . . . To take interest for money lent is unjust in itself, because this is to sell what does not exist, and this evidently leads to inequality, which is contrary to justice. . . Now, money according to the Philosopher1a, was invented chiefly for the purpose of exchange, and, consequently, the proper and principal use of money is its consumption or alienation, whereby it is sunk in exchange. Hence, it is by its very nature unlawful to take payment for the use of money lent, which payment is known as interest, and just as a man is bound to restore other ill-gotten goods, so is he bound to restore the money which he has taken in interest."1

The Wealth of Nations.

"As soon as the land of any country has all become private property, the landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed . . . "1a

"It is not . . . difficult to foresee which of the two parties must . . . have the advantage in the dispute, and force the other into a compliance with their terms.  The masters . . . can combine much more easily; and the law, besides, authorizes, or at least does not prohibit their combinations, while it prohibits those of the workmen."1b

"When the law does not enforce the performance of contracts, it puts all borrowers nearly upon the same footing with bankrupts or people of doubtful credit . . . "1c

"The pretence that corporations are necessary for the better government of the trade, is without any foundation. The real and effectual discipline which is exercised over a workman, is not that of his corporation, but that of his customers."1d

"The experience of all ages and nations, I believe, demonstrates that the work done by slaves, though it appears to cost only their maintenance, is in the end the dearest of any."1e

"Commerce, which ought naturally to be, among nations, as among individuals, a bond of union and friendship, has become the most fertile source of discord and animosity. . . [T]he mean rapacity, the monopolizing spirit of merchants and manufacturers, who neither are, nor ought to be, the rulers of mankind, though it cannot perhaps be corrected, may very easily be prevented from disturbing the tranquility of any body but themselves."1f 

" . . . [T]he cruellest of our revenue laws . . . are mild and gentle, in comparison of some of those which the clamour of our merchants and manufacturers has extorted from the legislators, for the support of their own absurd and oppressive monopolies."1g 

" . . . [I]n the mercantile system, the interest of the consumer is almost constantly sacrificed to that of the producer . . . "1h 

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals.

"In the kingdom of ends everything has either a price [market price or fancy price] or a dignity [intrinsic worth]."1a*

Perpetual Peace.

" . . . [A]s an instrument in the struggle among powers, the credit system -- the ingenious invention of a commercial people [England] during this century -- of endlessly growing debts that remain safe against immediate demand (since the demand for payment is not made by all creditors at the same time) is a dangerous financial power. It is a war chest exceeding the treasure of all other nations taken together . . . This ease in making war, combined with the inclination of those in power to do so . . . is a great obstacle to perpetual peace. Thus, forbidding foreign debt must be a preliminary article for perpetual peace . . . "2

The Metaphysics of Morals.

" . . . [A] human being regarded as a person, that is, as the subject of a morally practical reason, is exalted above any price; for as a person (homo noumenon) he is not to be valued merely as a means to the ends of others or even to his own ends, but as as an end in himself; that is, he possesses a dignity (an absolute inner worth) by which he exacts respect for himself from all other rational beings in the world."3a*

Rights of Man.

"The obscurity in which the origin of all the present old governments is buried, implies the iniquity and disgrace with which they began. . . Those bands of robbers having parcelled out the world, and divided it into dominions, began . . . to quarrel with each other. . . What at first was plunder, assumed the softer name of revenue . . .
From such beginning of governments, what could be expected, but a continual system of war and extortion? It has established itself into a trade."1a

On Liberty.

" . . . [I]t is now recognized . . . that both the cheapness and the good quality of commodities are more effectually provided for by leaving the producers and sellers perfectly free, under the sole check of equal freedom to the buyers for supplying themselves elsewhere. This is the so-called doctrine of Free Trade, which rests on grounds different from, though equally solid with, the principle of individual liberty asserted in this Essay."1a

 

Capital. Volume 1.

"The restless never-ending process of profit-making alone is what [the capitalist] aims at. This boundless greed after riches, this passionate chase after exchange-value, is common to the capitalist and the miser; but while the miser is merely a capitalist gone mad, the capitalist is a rational miser."1a

"The capitalist knows that all commodities, however scurvy they may look, or however badly they may smell, are in faith and in truth money, inwardly circumcised Jews, and what is more, a wonderful means whereby out of money to make more money."1b [Karl Marx was born of a German-Jewish family converted to Christianity2a]

"The Roman slave was held by fetters: the wage-labourer is bound to his owner by invisible threads. The appearance of independence is kept up by means of a constant change of employers, and by the fictio juris of a contract."1c

"The capitalist system presupposes the complete separation of the labourers from all property in the means by which they can realise their labour. . .
The so-called primitive accumulation, therefore, is nothing else than the historical process of divorcing the producer from the means of production."1d

Capital. Volume 3. "[T]the pioneering entrepreneurs generally go bankrupt, and it is only their successors who flourish, thanks to their possession of cheaper buildings, machinery etc. Thus it is generally the most worthless and wretched kind of money-capitalists that draw the greatest profit from all new developments of the universal labour of the human spirit and their social application by combined labour."2a

"Accumulation of capital in the form of the national debt . . . means nothing more than the growth of a class of state creditors with a preferential claim to certain sums from the overall proceeds of taxation."2b

"The credit system which has its focal point in the allegedly national banks and the big money-lenders and usurers that surround them, is one enormous centralization and gives this class of parasites a fabulous power not only to decimate the industrial capitalists periodically but also to interfere in actual production in the most dangerous manner . . . "2c

 

Thus Spoke Zarathustra.

" . . . Where the market-place begins, there begins the uproar of the great actors and the buzzing of the poisonous flies . . . The people have little idea of greatness, that is to say: creativeness . . . The actors possess spirit but little conscience of the spirit . . . The market-place is full of solemn buffoons . . . They want blood from you in all innocence, their bloodless souls thirst for blood . . . Flee my friend . . . "1a

The Gay Science.

"Have you not heard of that madman who . . . ran to the market place, and cried incessantly, 'I seek God! I seek God!' . . . 'Whither is God' . . . 'I shall tell you. We have killed him - you and I.'"2*

The Will to Power.

"What does nihilism mean? That the highest values devaluate themselves."3a*

The Decline of the West.

"Through money, democracy becomes its own destroyer, after money has destroyed intellect."1a

"Politics and trade in developed form -- the art of achieving material successes over an opponent by means of intellectual superiority -- are both a replacement of war by other means."1b

"Thinking in money generates money -- that is the secret of the world economy."1c*

"The sword is victorious over money, the master-will subdues again the plunderer-will. . . A power can be overthrown only by another power, not by a principle, and only one power that can confront money is left. Money is overthrown and abolished by blood. Life is alpha and omega . . . It is the fact of facts within the world-as-history."1d*

Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.

" . . . This process of Creative Destruction is the essential fact about capitalism."1a

"The perfectly bureaucratized giant industrial unit not only ousts the small or medium-sized firm and 'expropriates' its owners, but in the end it also ousts the entrepreneur . . . "1b

Business Cycles.

" . . . [C]apitalism is that form of private property economy in which innovations are carried out by means of borrowed money . . . "2a

"It was the financing of innovation by credit creation . . . which is at the bottom of that 'reckless banking.'"2b

"Capitalism and its civilization may be decaying, shading off into something else, or tottering toward a violent death."2c

" . . . [W]ithout innovation, no entrepreneurs, without entrepreneurial achievement, no capitalist returns . . . "2d

The General Theory.

"With the separation between ownership and management . . . and with the development of organized investment markets, a new factor of great importance has entered in, which sometimes facilitates investment but sometimes adds greatly to the instability of the system."1a

"I sympathise . . . with the pre-classical doctrine that everything is produced by labour, aided by what used to be called art and is now called technique, by natural resources . . . , and by the results of past labour, embodied in assets . . . "1b*

The Question Concerning Technology.

"The man who is deranged [Nietzsche's Madman who 'ran to the market place, and cried incessantly, "I seek God! I seek God!" . . . "Whither is God" . . . "I shall tell you. We have killed him - you and I"'1a] . . . has nothing in common with the kind of men standing about in the market place 'who do not believe in God.' For these men are not unbelievers because God as God has to them become unworthy of belief, but rather because they themselves have given up the possibility of belief, inasmuch as they are no longer able to seek God. They can no longer seek because they no longer think. Those standing about in the market place have abolished thinking and replaced it with idle babble that scents nihilism in every place in which it supposes it own opinion to be endangered."1*

The Principle of Reason.

"If this is the way it's going to be, may we give up what is worthy of thought in favor of the recklessness of exclusively calculative thinking and its immense achievements? Or are we obliged to find paths upon which thinking is capable of responding to what is worthy of thought instead of, enchanted by calculative thinking, mindlessly passing over what is worthy of thought?"2

The Road to Serfdom.

"Before 1914 all the true German ideals of a heroic life were in deadly danger before the continuous advance of English commercial ideals, English comfort, . . . "1a

Law, Legislation and Liberty.

" . . . [S]ince the power of the monopolist to discriminate can be used to coerce particular individuals or firms, and is likely to be used to restrict competition . . . , it clearly ought to be curbed by appropriate rules of conduct."2

The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness.

"It was discovered that man could be used as an economic instrument, that he could be exploited, that he could be made a slave."1a

"For the marketing character everything is transformed into a commodity - not only things, but the person himself, his physical energy, his skills, his knowledge, his opinions, his feelings, even his smiles."1a

The Open Society and Its Enemies.

"Money . . . becomes dangerous only if it can buy power, either directly, or by enslaving the economically weak who must sell themselves in order to live."1a

The Virtue of Selfishness.

"The Objectivist ethics proudly advocates and upholds rational selfishness . . . 
It holds that the rational interest of men do not clash - that there is no conflict of interests among men . . . who deal with one another as traders, giving value for value.
The principle of trade is the only rational ethical principle for all human relationships, personal and social, private and public, spiritual and material. It is the principle of justice."1a*

"All credit transactions are contractual agreements. . . Only a very small part of the gigantic network of credit transactions ever ends up in court, but the entire network is made possible by the existence of the courts, and would collapse overnight without that protection."1b*

Money.

"In all of the panics there were recognizable constants. First came an expansion in business activity. This usually centered on some dominant form of investment . . . Then, as time passed, expansion gave way to speculation . . . The banks, needless to say, provided the money that financed the speculation that in each case preceded the crash."1a

The Great Crash 1929

Technology Management and Society.

"Today the whole earth has become a local community . . ."1a

"In government, modern technology and the modern economy founded on it have outmoded the national state as a viable unit."1b

"To take risk is . . . the essence of economic activity."1c

"Managers today cannot take the time to understand, because they don't have it."1d

Capitalism and Freedom.

"The possibility of co-ordination through voluntary co-operation rests on the elementary - yet frequently denied - proposition that both parties to an economic transaction benefit from it, provided the transaction is bi-laterally voluntary and informed.
Exchange can therefore bring about co-ordination without coercion. A working model of a society organized through voluntary exchange is a free private enterprise exchange economy - what we have been calling competitive capitalism."1a*

"Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundations of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible."1b

The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt.

"Immediately rebellion, forgetful of its generous origins, allows itself to be contaminated by resentment; it denies life, dashes toward destruction, and raises up the grimacing cohorts of petty rebels, embryo slaves all of them, who end by offering themselves for sale, today, in all the marketplaces of Europe, to no matter what form of servitude. It is no longer either revolution or rebellion but rancor, malice, and tyranny. . . . All of us, among the ruins, are preparing a renaissance beyond the limits of nihilism. But few of us know it."1g

A People's History of the United States.

"It is roughly estimated that Africa lost 50 million human beings to death and slavery . . . at the hands of slave traders and plantation owners in Western Europe and America, the countries deemed the most advanced in the world."1a

" . . . [C]ontracts made between rich and poor, between employer and employee, landlord and tenant, creditor and debtor, generally favor the more powerful of the two parties."1b

The Crisis of Global Capitalism.

" . . . [P]eople can get rich in financial markets and powerful in politics by propounding false theories or self-fulfilling prophesies."1a

" . . . I devised an ideal type of boom/bust sequence. . . There is nothing determinate about the ideal case . . . but reflexivity . . . is the rule and it is ignored by the prevailing wisdom."1b*

"Everybody must look out for his or her own interests and moral scruples can become an encumbrance in a dog-eat-dog world."1c

"Why bother about the truth when a proposition does not need to be true to be effective? Why be honest when it is success, not honesty or virtue that gains people's respect? . . . We are ready to enter the Age of Fallibility."1d

The Essence of Capitalism.

"Gargantuan debts are nothing but indentured servitude."1a

" . . . [U]sing Hobbesian logic, I revealed Capitalism as a Religion of Money (banks as churches, bankers as clergy, loan applications as auricular confessions, bankruptcies as excommunications, credit bureaus as index librorum prohibitorum, etc.)."1b

Bank-Induced Risks.

"Today, people around the world are giving themselves up recklessly to the 'calculative thinking'3a of the marketplace. People calculate what is better -- a loan or a lease --; but, they seldom reflect on the meaning of usury. Why? Because they are too busy being indentured."2

 
Confucius. The Analects. Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Raymond Dawson. (Oxford World's Classics.)
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The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation. Translated with an Introduction by Roger T. Ames and Henry Rosemont, Jr. (Classics of Ancient China.)
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Aristotle. Politics. (Oxford World's Classics.)
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Authorized King James Version With Apocrypha Bible: Authorized King James Version With Apocrypha. (Oxford World's Classics.)  
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The Koran. Translated by N.J. Dawood.
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   Al Qur'an. Translated by Ahmed Ali.
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   The Qur'an: Translation. Translated by Mohammedali H. Shakir.
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Saint Thomas Aquinas. On Law, Morality, and Politics.
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Adam Smith. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Two Volumes in One).
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Adam Smith. The Wealth of Nations: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes.
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Adam Smith. The Wealth of Nations (Books I-III).
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Immanuel Kant. Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals.
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  Immanuel Kant. The Metaphysics of Morals (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy). 
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Immanuel Kant. Perpetual Peace and Other Essays on Politics, History, and Moral Practice.
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Immanuel Kant. The Metaphysics of Morals. (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy.)  
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Thomas Paine. Rights of Man, Common Sense and Other Political Writings. (Oxford World's Classics.)  
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John Stuart Mill. On Liberty. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications Inc., 2002. (Originally published by J.W. Parker in Great Britain in 1859.)
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Karl Marx. Capital: An Abridged Edition. (Oxford World's Classics.)
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Karl Marx. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Volume 1. (Penguin Classics.)
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Karl Marx. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Volume 3. (Penguin Classics.)
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Friedrich Nietzsche. Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
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Friedrich Nietzsche. The Gay Science.
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Friedrich Nietzsche. The Will To Power.
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Oswald Spengler. The Decline of the West. (Oxford Paperbacks) [Abridged].
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Oswald Spengler. The Decline of the West. Volume II: Perspectives of World History.
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Joseph A. Schumpeter. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.
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    Joseph A. Schumpeter. Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process.
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John Maynard Keynes. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.
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Martin Heidegger. The Principle of Reason (Studies in Continental Thought).
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F.A. Hayek. The Road to Serfdom.
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F.A. Hayek. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume 1: Rules and Order.
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F.A. Hayek. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume 2: The Mirage of Social Justice.
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F.A. Hayek. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume 3: The Political Order of a Free People.
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Erich Fromm. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness.
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Karl R. Popper. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Volume 1: The Spell of Plato.
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Karl R. Popper. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Volume 2: The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath.
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Ayn Rand. The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism.
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   John Kenneth Galbraith. Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went.
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John Kenneth Galbraith. The Great Crash 1929.
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Milton Friedman. Capitalism and Freedom.
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Albert Camus. The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt.
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Howard Zinn. A People's History of the United States 1492-Present.
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George Soros. The Crisis of Global Capitalism [Open Society Endangered]. 1st ed. PublicAffairs, 1998
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The Essence of Capitalism. Copyright � 1998-2001 by Macroknow Inc. All Rights Reserved. Edward E. Ayoub. The Essence of Capitalism. The Capitalism Collection: Volume I.
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World War III Against The Money Trust? Copyright � 1998-2001 by Macroknow Inc. All Rights Reserved. Edward E. Ayoub. World War III Against The Money Trust? Excessive Power Series: Volume I.
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Bank-Induced Risks. Copyright � 1998-2001 by Macroknow Inc. All Rights Reserved. Edward E. Ayoub. Bank-Induced Risks. Excessive Power Series: Volume II.
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* Italics in the original. 1 Confucius. The Analects. Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Raymond Dawson. Translation, Editorial material, Raymond Dawson, 1993. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. {The Analects consist of about 500 pieces organized by book and chapter; Confucius is referred to as Master Kong.]
a 4:12.
b 4:16.
c 9:13.
d 18:5.
1 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). PoliticsTranslated by Ernest Barker, revised with an Introduction and Notes by R.F. Stalley. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1995.
a At 29-30 (1258a35).
b
At 278-279 (1331a19).

1 The Holy Bible. The New Testament. King James Version. London, England: Collins' Clear-Type Press, 1957.
a St. Mark 11:15-18.

1 The Koran. Translated, with Notes, by N.J. Dawood. N.J. Dawood, 1956, 1959, 1966, 1968, 1974, 1990, 1993. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a The Cow 2:188.
b Women 4:3.
1 Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). On Law, Morality, and Politics. Edited by William P. Baumgarth and Richard J. Regan, S.J. Avatar Books of Cambridge, 1988. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company. (ST II-II, Question 78: Of the Sin of Interest-Taking, 198-209; First Article: Is It a Sin to Take Interest for Money Lent?, 198-202).
a Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).
Politics. Translated by Ernest Barker, revised with an Introduction and Notes by R.F. Stalley. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1995. (The trade of the petty usurer, at 29-30 (1258a35).)
1 Adam Smith (1723-1790). The Wealth of Nations (1776). 2 vols. in 1. Edited by Edwin Cannan. Preface by George J. Stigler. The University of Chicago, 1976. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, at 74 (vol. 1, bk. 1). (Cannan's ed. was originally pub. 1904 by Methuen & Co., Ltd.)
a Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 56.
b Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 74.
c Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 107.
d Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 144.
e Vol. 1, bk. 3, at 411.
f Vol. 1, bk. 4, at 519.
g Vol. 2, bk. 4, at 165.
h Vol. 2, bk. 4, at 179.

1 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785). Translated and Analyzed by H.J. Paton. New York, NY: Harper and Row, Publishers, Incorporated. (Originally published under the title The Moral Law, Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., London, 1948.)
a The dignity of virtue, at 102-103.

2 Immanuel Kant. To Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795). Essay included in Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace and Other Essays on Politics, History, and Moral Practice. Translated with an Introduction by Ted Humphrey. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1983, at 107-143.

3 Immanuel Kant. The Metaphysics of Morals (1797). Translated and edited by Mary Gregor. With an Introduction by Roger J. Sullivan. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
a The Doctrine of Virtue, at 186.

1 Thomas Paine (1737-1809). Rights of Man, Common Sense and Other Political Writings. Edited with an Introduction by Mark Philp. Mark Philp, 1995. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
a Rights of Man (1792), Ch. 11, Of the Origin of the Present Old Governments, at 220-221.
1 John Stuart Mill. On Liberty. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications Inc., 2002. (Originally published by J.W. Parker in Great Britain in 1859.)
a Chapter V: Applications, at 80.

1 Karl Marx (1818-1883). Capital: An Abridged Edition. Edited with an Introduction by David McLellan. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
From Volume 1
a Part II, Chapter 4: The General Formula for Capital, at 98.
b Part II, Chapter 4: The General Formula for Capital, at 99.
c Part VII, Chapter 23: Simple Reproduction, at 323.
d Part VIII, Chapter 26: The Secret of Primitive Accumulation, at 364.

2 Karl Marx. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Volume 3. Translated by David Fernbach with an Introduction by Ernest Mandel. Edition and notes, New Left Review, 1981. Translation, David Fernbach, 1981. Introduction, Ernest Mandel, 1981. London, UK: Penguin Group.
a Marx's biography at 1.
a Chapter 5: Economy in the Use of Constant Capital, at 199.
b Chapter 30: Money Capital and Real Capital: I, at 607.
c Chapter 33: The Means of Circulation under the Credit System, at 678-679.

1 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). Thus Spoke Zarathustra (written 1883-1885, first appeared in 1892). Translated with an Introduction by R.J. Hollingdale, 1961 and 1969. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a Part 1, Of the Flies of the Marketplace, at 78-81.

2 Friedrich Nietzsche. The Gay Science (1882). With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs. Translated with Commentary by Walter Kaufmann. New York, NY: Random House Inc., 1974. Book 3, No. 125, The Madman, at 181-182.

3 Friedrich Nietzsche. The Will To Power (written 1883-1888). Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. Edited, with Commentary, by Walter Kaufmann, 1967. New York, NY: Random House Inc. (Vintage Books Edition, 1968).
a Book I: European Nihilism, at 9.

1 Oswald Spengler (1880-1936). The Decline of the West. An Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner. English Abridged Edition prepared by Arthur Helps, from the translation by Charles Francis Atkinson. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1991. The Decline of the West was originally published in two volumes: Der Untergang des Abendlandes, Gestalt und Wirklichkeit, 1918, C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandling, Munich; and Der Untergang des Abendlandes, Welthistoriche Perspektiven, 1922, C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandling, Munich.
a Philosophy of Politics, at 396.
b The Form-World of Economic Life: Money, at 402.
c The Form-World of Economic Life: Money, at 408.
d The Form-World of Economic Life: The Machine, at 414.

1 Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1942). 3rd ed. Introduction by Tom Bottomore. Joseph A. Schumpeter, 1942, 1947. Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1950. George Allen & Unwin (Publishers) Ltd., 1976. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. (Originally pub. by Harper & Brothers.)
a The Process of Creative Destruction, at 81-86.
b Crumbling Walls, at 131-142.

2 Joseph A. Schumpeter. Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process (1939). Abridged, with an Introduction, by Rendigs Fels. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1964. (Reprinted 1989 by Porcupine Press, Inc., Philadelphia PA.)
a Capitalism defined, at 179.
b "Reckless banking," at 197.
c The World Crisis and After, at 330-423, especially at 332.
d The great source of investment opportunity, at 405-406.

1 John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946). The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935). San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1991.
a The State of Long-Term Expectation, at 150.

b Sundry Observations on the Nature of Capital, at 213.

1 Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Translated and with an Introduction by William Lovitt. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1977. [See Part II: The Word of Nietzsche: "God Is Dead," especially pp. 59-60 and p. 112].
a Friedrich Nietzsche. The Gay Science. The translation of The Madman (section no. 125) is from Walter Kaufmann's The Portable Nietzsche (New York, NY: Viking 1968), at 95-96.

2 Martin Heidegger. The Principle of Reason. Translated by Reginald Lilly. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1991, at 129.

1 F.A. Hayek (1899-1992). The Road to Serfdom. Fiftieth Anniversary Edition. Introduction by Milton Friedman. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago, 1944, 1972, 1994.
a The Socialist Roots of Naziism, at 186.

2 F.A. Hayek. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume 3: The Political Order of a Free People. F.A. Hayek, 1979. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. When Monopoly Becomes Harmful, at 85.

1 Erich Fromm (1900-1980). The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. Erich Fromm, 1973. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.
a The Urban Revolution, at 188.
b The Connection Between Necrophilia and the Worship of Technique, at 388.
1 Karl R. Popper. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Volume II: The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath. Fifth ed. (revised). Karl Raimund Popper, 1962, 1966. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
a The Legal and the Social System, at 128.
1 Ayn Rand (1905-1982). The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism. With additional articles by Nathaniel Branden. Ayn Rand, 1961, 1964. The Objectivist Newsletter, Inc., 1962, 1963, 1964. New York, NY: Penguin Books USA, Inc. (A Signet Book.)
a The Objectivist Ethics, at 34.
b Government Financing in a Free Society, at 136.
1 John Kenneth Galbraith (1908-). Money. Whence It Came, Where It Went. Revised ed. John Kenneth Galbraith, 1975, 1995. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.
a The Price, at 106-113.
1 Peter F. Drucker (b. 1909). Technology Management and Society: Essays. Peter F. Drucker, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1977.a Ch. 5: Technology and Society in the Twentieth Century, at 88. Reprinted from Technology in Western Civilization, vol. II, edited by Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll W. Pursell, Jr., Regents of the University of Wisconsin, 1967.
b Ch. 5, at 90.
c Ch. 8: Long-Range Planning, at 132. Reprinted from Management Science, vol. 5, no. 3 (April 1959); based on a paper given before the Fourth International Meeting of the Institute of Management Sciences, Detroit, October 17-18, 1957.
d Ch. 10: The Manager and the Moron, at 175. First published in The McKinsey Quarterly, Spring 1967.
1 Milton Friedman (1912-). Capitalism and Freedom. With the assistance of Rose D. Friedman. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago, 1962, 1982.
a The Relation between Economic Freedom and Political Freedom, at 13.
b Monopoly and the Social Responsibility of Business and Labor, at 133.
1 Albert Camus. The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt. A revised and complete translation by Anthony Bower. With a Foreword by Sir Herbert Read. Originally published in France as L�homme R�volt� by Librairie Gallimard in 1951. Librairie Gallimard, 1951. Translation first published in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. in 1956. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1956 and 1984. New York, NY: Vintage International, a division of Random House, Inc., 1991.
a Part Five: Thought at the Meridian. Beyond Nihilism, pp. 304-306.
1 Howard Zinn. A People's History of the United States 1492-Present. Revised and updated ed. Howard Zinn, 1980, 1995. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
a Drawing the Color Line, at 29.
b A Kind of Revolution, at 99.
1 George Soros. The Crisis of Global Capitalism [Open Society Endangered]. George Soros, 1998. New York, NY: Public Affairs�.
a Reflexivity and Social Scientists, at 34.
b Reflexivity in Financial Markets, at 51-53.
c Transactional Society, at 75.
d The Enlightenment, at 89-90.
1 Edward E. Ayoub, with the assistance of Trudé K. Ayoub. The Essence of Capitalism. Toronto, ON: Macroknow Inc., 2000.

2 Edward E. Ayoub. Bank-Induced Risks. Toronto, Ontario: Macroknow Inc., 1998.
a Heidegger's expression. The Principle of Reason, at 122 and 129 (on "calculative thinking" vs. "reflective thinking"). Translated by Reginald Lilly. Verlag Gunther Neske, Pfullingen, 1957 (Der Satz vom Grund). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1991.