Good, Justice, Ethics, Reason, Virtue

" . . . [J]ust means lawful and fair; and unjust means both unlawful and unfair."1a

" . . . [V]irtue ensures the correctness of the end at which we aim, and prudence that of the means towards it."1b

The Old Testament.

"And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness." [Genesis 1:3-4]1a*

"But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shall not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die." [Genesis 2:17]1b

"When I looked for good, then evil came unto me: and when I waited for light, there came darkness." [Job 30-26]1c

The New Testament.

"Ye shall know them by their fruits. . . 
[E]very good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit."  [St. Matthew 7:16-18]1a*

"[Jesus] . . . said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man . . . 
The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity;
And shall cast them into a furnace of fire . . .
Then shall the righteous shine forth . . . "
[St. Matthew 13:37-43]1b

"But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great . . . " [St. Luke 6:35]1c

" . . . [T]o him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin." [James 4:17]1d



The Koran.

"He that does a good deed shall be repaid tenfold; but he that does evil shall be rewarded only with evil." [The Heights 6:160]1a

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals.

" . . . [Reason's] true function must be to produce a will which is good, not as a means to some further end, but in itself . . . "1a*

The Philosophy of History.

"This is the seal of the absolute and sublime destiny of man - that he knows what is good and what is evil; that his Destiny is his very ability to will either good or evil . . . "1a*

The Origin of Species.

"Man selects only for his own good . . . "1a

The Myth of the State.

"God is a person - and that means a will. No mere logical methods of arguing and reasoning can make us understand this will. . . It is from God himself, from the revelation of his will, not from dialectic, that man has to learn good and evil."1a

* Italics in the original.

1 Aristotle. The Ethics of Aristotle: The Nicomachean EthicsTranslated by J.A.K. Thomson, 1953. Revised with Notes and Appendices by Hugh Tredennick, 1976. Introduction and Bibliography by Jonathan Barnes, 1976. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a Book V: Justice, at 172.
b Book VI: Intellectual Virtues, at 222.

1 The Holy Bible. The Old Testament. King James Version. London, England: Collins' Clear-Type Press, 1957.
a Genesis 1:3-4.

b Genesis 2:17.
c Job 30-26.
1 The Holy Bible. The New Testament. King James Version. London, England: Collins' Clear-Type Press, 1957.
a St. Matthew 7:16-18.

b St. Matthew 13:37-43.
c St. Luke 6:35.
d James 4:17.
1 The Koran. Translated, with Notes, by N.J. Dawood. N.J. Dawood, 1956, 1959, 1966, 1968, 1974, 1990, 1993. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a The Heights 6:160.
1 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785). Translated and Analyzed by H.J. Paton. New York, NY: Harper and Row, Publishers, Incorporated. (Originally published under the title The Moral Law, Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., London, 1948.)
a The function of reason, at 62-64.
1 G. W. F. Hegel. The Philosophy of History. Translated by J. Sibree. Prefaces by Charles Hegel and J. Sibree. Introduction by C.J. Friedrich. New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1956.
a Introduction, at 34.
1 Charles Darwin (1809-1882). The Origin of Species (1859). In Darwin, Philip Appleman (ed.), 2nd ed., New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1970, 1979.
a Natural Selection; Or the Survival of the Fittest, at 56.
1 Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945). The Myth of the State. Yale University Press, 1946. Henry Cassirer and Anne Applebaum, 1974. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
a The Religious and Metaphysical Background of the Medieval Theory of the State, at 82.