"Of all the things a man can call his
own, the holiest
(thought the gods are holier still) is his soul, his most intimate possession.
There are two elements that make up the whole of every man. One is stronger and superior,
and acts as master; the other, which is weaker and inferior, is a
slave . . .
"1a [See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory
Allegory of the cave.
"[H]ere's a situation
which you can use as an analogy for the human condition . . .
Imagine people living in a cavernous cell down under the ground .
. . They've been there since childhood, with their legs and necks tied
up . . . There's firelight burning . . . behind them . . . [T]he
shadows of artefacts would constitute the only
reality people in this situation would recognize."2a
" . . . [A]nybody who by his nature is not
his own man, but another's, is by his nature a slave;
anybody who, being a man, is an article of property is
another's man; an article of property is an instrument
intended for the purpose of action and separable from its
[See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory
"What does a dog owe to a dog, and a horse to a horse?
Nothing, no animal depends on his like; but man having received the ray of divinity called
reason, what is the result? Slavery throughout almost the whole world."1
we trace the march of inequality in these various
revolutions, we find that the establishment of law and the right
of property was the first stage, the institution of the magistrate
the second, and the transformation of legitimate into arbitrary
power the third and last. Thus, the status of rich and poor
was sanctioned in the first age, that of strong and weak in
the second, and in the third that of master and slave, the
ultimate degree of inequality to which all the others at last lead
until new revolutions dissolve the government altogether
or bring it closer to legitimacy."1a
"Man was born free,
and everywhere he is in chains."2a
The Wealth of
"The experience of all ages and nations, I believe,
demonstrates that the work done by slaves, though it
appears to cost only their maintenance, is in the end the dearest of any."1b
. . . [T]here is posited a pure self-consciousness, and a
consciousness which is not purely for itself but for another . . . The
former is lord, the other is bondsman."1a [See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory
"The masses are the victims
of the deception of a priesthood which, in its
envious conceit, holds itself to be the sole possessor of insight
and pursues its other selfish ends as well. . . From the stupidity
and confusion of the people brought about by the trickery of
priestcraft, despotism, which despises both, draws for itself the
advantage of undisturbed domination . . . "1b*
slave was held by fetters: the
wage-labourer is bound to his owner by invisible threads. The
appearance of independence is kept up by means of a constant
change of employers, and by the
fictio juris of a contract."1a
"The capitalist system presupposes
the complete separation of the labourers from all property in
the means by which they can realise their labour. . .
The so-called primitive accumulation, therefore, is nothing else
than the historical process of
divorcing the producer from
the means of production."1b
"Liverpool employed in the slave-trade,
in 1730, 15 ships; in 1751, 53; in 1760, 74; in 1770, 96; and in
While the cotton industry introduced child-slavery in England,
it gave in the United States a stimulus to the
transformation of the earlier, more or less patriarchal
slavery, into a system of commercial exploitation.
In fact, the veiled slavery of the wage-workers in Europe
needed, for its pedestal, slavery pure and simple in the new
The Anatomy of Human
"It was discovered that man could be used as an economic
instrument, that he could be exploited, that he could be made
" . . . [T]he essence of sadism is the passion
for unlimited, godlike control over men and
The Open Society
and Its Enemies.
"Money . . . becomes dangerous only if it can buy
power, either directly, or by enslaving the economically
weak who must sell themselves in order to live."1a
" . . . [T]he history of power politics is nothing but the
history of international crime and mass murder . . .
"BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU."1a
"FREEDOM IS SLAVERY."1b
"TWO AND TWO MAKE FIVE."1c*
"Doublethink lies at the very heart of Ingsoc,
since the essential act of the Party is to use conscious
deception while retaining the firmness of purpose that goes
with complete honesty. . . It need hardly be said that the
subtlest practitioners of doublethink are those who
invented doublethink and know that it is a vast
system of mental cheating."1d*
"'That is my message to you, comrades: Rebellion!'"2a
"ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT
SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS."2b
A People's History of the United
"It is roughly estimated that Africa lost 50 million
human beings to death and slavery . . . at the hands of slave
traders and plantation owners in Western Europe and America, the
countries deemed the most advanced in the world."1a
. . . [T]he idea of a quantum theory of economics
must capture the essence of economic Being. . . By
analogy with quantum mechanics, the wave function |Y>
of a system (consisting of one or more persons,
corporations, States, etc.) can be expressed as a
weighting factors a and b are the probability
amplitudes of states FREE and SLAVE,
Italics in the original.
Plato (c. 427-347
Laws. Translated with an Introduction by Trevor J.
Saunders, 1970. Penguin Group.
a The Importance of Honouring the Soul, at 189-191.
Republic. Translated by Robin
Waterfield. Robin Waterfield, 1993. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
a The Supremacy of Good, Allegory of the Cave (514a-514c),
Politics. Translated by Ernest Barker, revised with an
Introduction and Notes by R.F. Stalley. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1995.
At 14 (1254a13).
1 Voltaire (1694-1778). Philosophical
Dictionary (1764). Edited and translated by Theodore Besterman, 1972. London,
England: Penguin Books Ltd. (Egalitï¿½: Equality, at 181.)
(1712-1778). Discourse on the
Origin of Inequality.
Translated by Franklin Philip. Edited with an Introduction
by Patrick Coleman. Franklin Philip, 1994. Patrick
Coleman, 1994. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Part II, at 78-79.
Rousseau. Discourse on Political
Economy and The Social Contract.
Translated with Introduction and Notes by Christopher
Betts. Christopher Betts, 1994. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Book I, at 45.
1 Adam Smith (1723-1790). The
Wealth of Nations (1776). 2 vols. in 1. Edited by Edwin Cannan. Preface by
George J. Stigler. The University of Chicago, 1976. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago
Press, at 74 (vol. 1, bk. 1). (Cannan's ed. was originally pub. 1904 by Methuen & Co.,
a Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 74.
b Vol. 1, bk. 3, at 411.
1 G. W. F. Hegel.
Translated by A.V. Miller with Analysis of the Text and Foreword by
J.N. Findlay. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1977.
a Independence and Dependence of Self-Consciousness:
Lordship and Bondage, at 115.
b The Struggle of the Enlightenment with Superstition,
1 Karl Marx (1818-1883). Capital: An
Edited with an Introduction by David McLellan.
Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
From Volume 1
a Part VII, Chapter 23: Simple Reproduction, at 323.
b Part VIII, Chapter 26: The Secret of Primitive
Accumulation, at 364.
c Part VIII, Chapter 31: Genesis of the Industrial
Capitalist, at 377.
1 Erich Fromm. The Anatomy of Human
Destructiveness. Erich Fromm, 1973. New York, NY:
Henry Holt and Company, Inc.
a The Urban Revolution, at 188.
b The Urban Revolution, at 191.
The Open Society and Its Enemies.
Volume II: The High Tide
of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath. Fifth ed. (revised). Karl
Raimund Popper, 1962, 1966. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
a The Legal and the Social System, at 128.
b Has History Any Meaning?, at 270.
1 George Orwell (1903-1950). Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Eric Blair, 1949. Estate of the late Sonia Brownwell Orwell, 1987.
Note on the Text by
Peter Davison, 1989.London, UK: Penguin Group, 1989, 1990. (First
published by Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., 1949.)
Brother, at 3.
of the Party, at 18.
at 290 and 303.
and the "secret of rulership," at 223-224.
Orwell. Animal Farm: A Fairy Story.
Eric Blair, 1945. The Estate of the late Sonia Brownell Orwell,
1987. Introduction by Malcolm Bradbury, 1989. Note on the Text by
Peter Davison, 1989. London, UK: Penguin Group, 1989. (First
published by Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., 1945.)
a Ch. 1, at 5.
b Ch. 10, at 90.
Zinn. A People's History of the United
States 1492-Present. Revised and updated ed. Howard
Zinn, 1980, 1995. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
a Drawing the Color Line, at 29.
1 Edward E.
Ayoub, with the assistance of
Trudé K. Ayoub.
Essence of Capitalism. Toronto, ON: Macroknow