"Experience concludeth nothing universally. . . But by this
it is plain, that they shall conjecture best, that have most
experience . . . "1a
The Philosophy of
. . . [T]he scientific value of a
formula consists not only in its
summing up of given empirical facts but in its power . . . to call
forth new facts. The formula states relationships,
connections, series which far outdistance direct observation.
It becomes one of the most outstanding instruments of what Leibniz
called the 'logic of discovery,' the logica inventionis."1a
"The true standard for the
evaluation of a physical hypothesis . . . can never be sought in
its intuitive reference but only in its efficacy. It is not the
simplicity of the image that is decisive, but the unity of
the explanation, the subsumption of the totality of natural
phenomena under supreme comprehensive rules."1b
" . . .
that form of private property economy in which innovations are
carried out by means of borrowed money . . . "1a
"It was the financing of
innovation by credit creation . . . which is at the bottom
of that 'reckless banking.'"1b
" . . . [W]ithout innovation,
no entrepreneurs, without entrepreneurial achievement, no
capitalist returns . . . "1c
Out of the
is the world's most underdeveloped nation? With the storehouse
of skills and knowledge contained in its millions of unemployed,
and with the even more appalling underuse, misuse, and abuse
of skills and knowledge in the army of employed people in all
ranks in all industries, the United States may be today the
most underdeveloped nation in the world."1a
"Experience alone, without
theory, teaches management nothing about what to do to improve
quality and competitive position, nor how to do it. . . Experience
will answer a question, and a question comes from theory."1b
afflict most companies in the Western world. An esteemed
economist (Carolyn A. Emigh) remarked that cure of the deadly
diseases will require total reconstruction of Western
psychology, statistical theory, theory of law, yes, but most
studies of accounting, marketing, and finance are skills, not
education; most use of computers for paperwork likewise."1d
"How could we arrest scientific and industrial progress?
By closing down, or by controlling, laboratories for research, by
suppressing or controlling scientific periodicals . . ., by
suppressing Universities . . . , by suppressing books, the
printing press, writing, and, in the end, speaking."1a
Management and Society.
has moved, from having been an ornament, if not a luxury, to
the central economic resource of technological society."1a
"In government, modern technology and
the modern economy founded on it have outmoded the national
state as a viable unit."1b
"Aware that we are living in the midst
of a technological revolution, we are becoming increasingly
concerned with its meaning for the individual and its impact on
freedom, on society, and on our political institutions.
Side by side with messianic promises of utopia to be ushered in by
technology, there are the most dire warnings of man's enslavement
by technology, his alienation from himself and from
society, and the destruction of all human and political
"To take risk is . . . the essence
of economic activity."1d
"Managers today cannot take the time
to understand, because they don't have it."1e
" . . . [W]hile American industry was spending about $76
billion each year on research and development as of 1992, the
National Association of Manufacturers estimated that this same
industrial sector was spending $118 billion on outside
legal services. . . If we continue to pay roughly one and
one-half times as much on litigation as we do on the creation of
new wealth in American industry - in other words, research and
development - we are on a trajectory to economic disaster."1*
Italics in the original.
Hobbes. Human Nature and De
Corpore Politico. Edited with an
Introduction by J.C.A. Gaskin, 1994. Oxford, England: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Part I: Human Nature. Of the Several Kinds of Discursion of the
Mind, at 33.
Philosophy of Symbolic Forms.
3: The Phenomenology of Knowledge. Translated by Ralph Manheim.
Introductory Note by Charles W. Hendel. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Press, 1957, 1985.
The Foundations of Scientific
Knowledge, at 440.
The Foundations of Scientific
Knowledge, at 463.
A. Schumpeter. Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical
and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist
Process (1939). Abridged, with an Introduction, by
Rendigs Fels. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1964. (Reprinted
1989 by Porcupine Press, Inc., Philadelphia PA.)
a Capitalism defined, at 179.
b "Reckless banking," at 197.
c The great source of investment opportunity, at
Edwards Deming (1900-1993).
Out of the
Edwards Deming, 1982, 1986. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Engineering Study,
R. Popper (1902-1994). The Poverty of Historicism.
Karl Raimund Popper, 1957, 1960, 1961. London, UK: Routledge,
a The Institutional Theory of Progress, at 154.
Peter F. Drucker (b. 1909).
Management and Society: Essays. Peter F. Drucker,
1958, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970. New York, NY: Harper &
Row, Publishers, Inc., 1977.a
Ch. 5: Technology and
Society in the Twentieth Century, at 82. Reprinted from Technology
in Western Civilization, vol. II, edited by Melvin Kranzberg and
Carroll W. Pursell, Jr., Regents of the University of Wisconsin,
Ch. 5, at 90.
Ch. 7: The First
Technological Revolution and Its Lessons, at 117. Presidential
address to the Society for the History of Technology, December 29,
1965; First published in Technology and Culture, Spring 1966.
Ch. 8: Long-Range
Planning, at 132. Reprinted from Management Science, vol. 5,
no. 3 (April 1959); based on a paper given before the Fourth
International Meeting of the Institute of Management Sciences,
Detroit, October 17-18, 1957.
Ch. 10: The Manager and
the Moron, at 175. First published in The McKinsey Quarterly,
1 D. Allan Bromley. The
President's Scientists: Reminiscences of a White House Science
Advisor (Yale University Mrs. Hepsa Ely Silliman
Memorial Lectures). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994.
Rebuilding the Office of Science and Technology Policy, at 48.