ARISTOTLE   Macroknow Library


" . . . [A]nybody who by his nature is not his own man, but another's, is by his nature a slave; anybody who, being a man, is an article of property is another's man; an article of property is an instrument intended for the purpose of action and separable from its possessor."1a DIOGENES PLATO HEGEL MILL SANTAYANA [See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory of Economics.] AYOUB

"The trade of the petty usurer is hated with most reason: it makes a profit from currency itself, instead of making it from the process which currency was meant to serve"1b PLATO AQUINAS JEFFERSON POUND AYOUB

"The market-place for buying and selling should be separate from [the] public square and at a distance from it . . . "1c RAND


" . . . [T]hose who follow illiberal occupations, like . . . moneylenders who make small loans at a high rate of interest; for all these receive more than is right, and not from the right source. Their common characteristic is obviously their sordid avarice . . . "2a PLATO MONTESQUIEU

" . . . [J]ust means lawful and fair; and unjust means both unlawful and unfair."2b

" . . . [V]irtue ensures the correctness of the end at which we aim, and prudence that of the means towards it."2c

The Metaphysics.

" . . . [P]hilosophy is rightly called a knowledge of Truth. . . But we cannot know the truth apart from the cause."3a EINSTEIN

" . . . [I]t is of Being qua Being that we . . . must grasp the first causes."3b*

" . . . [H]owever much things may be 'so and not so,' yet differences of degree are inherent in the nature of things. For we should not say that 2 and 3 are equally even; nor are he who thinks that 4 is 5, and he who thinks it is 1000, equally wrong: hence if they are not equally wrong, the one is clearly less wrong, and so more right."3c DESCARTES PASCAL BERKELEY VOLTAIRE  JAMES SANTAYANA RUSSELL POPPER ORWELL DRUCKER PENROSE

"To say that what is is not, or that what is not is, is false; but to say that what is is, and what is not is not, is true; and therefore also he who says that a thing is or is not will say either what is true and what is false."3d

" . . . [I]f every intellectual activity is either practical or productive or speculative, physics will be a speculative science . . . it is clear . . . why it is the province of the physicist to study even some aspects of the soul, so far as it is not independent of matter."3e BOOLE BRENTANO PLANCK EINSTEIN WIGNER CRICK BROMLEY WATSON

"The term 'being' . . . denotes first the 'what' of a thing . . . what it is . . . "3f*

" . . . [D]estruction is an evil."3g


" . . . [T]he point of our investigation is to acquire knowledge, and a prerequisite for knowing anything is understanding why it is as it is - in other words, grasping its primary cause."4a PASTEUR

" . . . [W]henever there is an end, the whole prior sequence of actions is performed with this end as its purpose."4b SPINOZA

De Anima.


" . . . [W]e may with good reason claim a high place for the inquiry concerning the soul. . . the soul being virtually the principle of all animal life."5a


"Matter is identical with potentiality, form with actuality."5b

" . . . [B]y life we mean the power of self-nourishment and of independent growth and decay."5c

"The soul . . . is the actuality of the body . . ."5d BERKELEY

" . . . [I]f the eye were an animal, eyesight would be its soul, this being the substance as notion or form of the eye."5e

" . . . [W]here there is sensation, there is also pleasure and pain: and, where these are, desire also must of necessity be present. But as regards intellect and the speculative faculty the case is not yet clear. It would seem, however, to be a distinct species of soul, and it alone is capable of separation from the body, as that which is eternal from that which is perishable."5f LOCKE BERKELEY

" . . . the sense of touch is the most exact of man's senses. In the other senses man is inferior to many of the animals, but in delicacy of touch he is far superior to the rest. And to this he owes his superior intelligence."5g


" . . . [I]ntellect is capable of thinking itself."5h HUSSERL

" . . . [T]hat which acts is always superior to that which is acted upon, the cause or principle to the matter. Now actual knowledge is identical with the thing known, but potential knowledge is prior in time in the individual; and yet not universally prior in time. But this intellect has no intermittence in its thought. It is, however, only when separated that it is its true self, and this, its essential nature, alone is immortal and eternal."5i BERKELEY

" . . . as the hand is the instrument of instruments, so the intellect is the form of forms and sensation the form of sensibles. But, since, apart from sensible magnitudes there is nothing, as it would seem, independently existent, it is in the sensible forms that the intelligible forms exist . . ."5j

" . . . action is determined by desire . . ."5k

"By intelligence we mean that which calculates the means to an end, that is, the practical intellect, which differs from the speculative intellect by the end at which it aims."5l

" . . . [T]ouch is the one sense that the animal cannot do without. The other senses which it possesses are . . . the means, not to its being, but to its well-being."5m


* Italics in the original.

1 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). PoliticsTranslated by Ernest Barker, revised with an Introduction and Notes by R.F. Stalley. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1995.
At 14 (1254a13).
b At 29-30 (1258a35).
c At 278-279 (1331a19).

2 Aristotle. The Ethics of Aristotle: The Nicomachean EthicsTranslated by J.A.K. Thomson, 1953. Revised with Notes and Appendices by Hugh Tredennick, 1976. Introduction and Bibliography by Jonathan Barnes, 1976. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
Book IV: Other Moral Virtues, at 148.
Book V: Justice, at 172.
Book VI: Intellectual Virtues, at 222.

3 Aristotle. The Metaphysics. Books I-IX. Translation by Hugh Tredennick. G.P. Goold, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933, 1989. (The Loeb Classical Library.)
Book II, at 87.
Book IV, at 147.
Book IV, at 181.
Book IV, at 201.
Book VI, at 295.
Book VII, at 311.
Book IX, at 467.

4 Aristotle. Physics. Translated by Robin Waterfield, 1996. With an Introduction and Notes by David Bostock, 1996. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Book II: The Study of Nature, at 38-39.
Book II: The Study of Nature, at 51.

4 Aristotle. De Anima. Translated by R. D. Hicks. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991.
a At 9.
b At 37.
c Ibid., at 37.
d At 38.
e At 39.
f At 41-42.
g At 61.
h At 86.
i At 88.
j At 93.
k At 95.
l At 96.
m At 103.