Georg W. F. Hegel
GEORG W. F. HEGEL  Macroknow Library
Phenomenology of Spirit.

". . . [S]elf consciousness is Desire."1a RIG VEDA

" The notion of self-consciousness is only completed in these three moments: (a) the pure undifferentiated 'I' is its first immediate object. (b) But this immediacy is itself an absolute mediation, it is only as a supersession of the independent object, in other words, it is Desire. The satisfaction of Desire is, it is true, the reflection of self-consciousness into itself, or the certainty that has become truth. (c) But the truth of this certainty is really a double reflection, the duplication of self-consciousness."1b PLOTINUS

" . . . [T]here is posited a pure self-consciousness, and a consciousness which is not purely for itself but for another . . . The former is lord, the other is bondsman."1c PLATO ARISTOTLE NEWTON MILL SANTAYANA KING [See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory of Economics.] AYOUB

"The masses are the victims of the deception of a priesthood which, in its envious conceit, holds itself to be the sole possessor of insight and pursues its other selfish ends as well. . . From the stupidity and confusion of the people brought about by the trickery of priestcraft, despotism, which despises both, draws for itself the advantage of undisturbed domination . . . "1d* NEW TESTAMENT HUME MACHIAVELLI MILL NIETZSCHE GHENT GANDHI ORWELL

Philosophy of Right.

"As a living thing man may be coerced . . . ; but the free will cannot be coerced at all . . . Only the will which allows itself to be coerced can in any way be coerced."2a

"When the standard of living of a large mass of people falls below a certain subsistence level . . . the result is the creation of a rabble of paupers. At the same time this brings with it . . . conditions which greatly facilitate the concentration of disproportionate wealth in a few hands."2b

Philosophy of Mind.

"The English . . . recognize the rational less in the form of universality than in that of individuality. . . For this reason, political freedom with the English exists mostly in the shape of privileges, of rights which are traditional, not derived from general ideas."3a HOBBES

"In the formula, I=I, is enunciated the principle of absolute Reason and freedom."3b BHAGAVAD GITA DESCARTES HEIDEGGER

"Truth aware of what it is, is mind (spirit)."3c GANDHI

The Philosophy of History.

" . . . [W]hat experience and history teach is this - that peoples and governments never have learned anything from history . . . "4a

"This is the seal of the absolute and sublime destiny of man - that he knows what is good and what is evil; that his Destiny is his very ability to will either good or evil . . . "4b*

"Nations are what their deeds are."4c

"Spirit is immortal: with it there is no past, no future, but an essential now. This necessarily implies that the present form of Spirit comprehends within it all earlier steps."4d* OLD TESTAMENT UPANISHADS AUGUSTINE NIETZSCHE HEIDEGGER


* Italics in the original.   

1 G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831). Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by A.V. Miller with Analysis of the Text and Foreword by J.N. Findlay. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1977.
a The Truth of Self-Certainty, at 109.
b Ibid., at 110.
c Independence and Dependence of Self-Consciousness: Lordship and Bondage, at 115.
d The Struggle of the Enlightenment with Superstition, at 330.

2 G. W. F. Hegel. Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Translated with Notes by T.M. Knox. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1967.
a Coercion and Crime, at 66.
b Police [or the public authority], at 150.

3 G. W. F. Hegel. Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. Part Three of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830). Translated by William Wallace. Together with the Zus�tze in Boumann's Text (1845) translated by A.V. Miller. Foreword by J.N. Findlay. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1971.
a Anthropology, at 50.
b Self-Consciousness, at 165.
c Reason, at 178.

4 G. W. F. Hegel. The Philosophy of History. Translated by J. Sibree. Prefaces by Charles Hegel and J. Sibree. Introduction by C.J. Friedrich. New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1956.
a Introduction, at 6.
b Introduction, at 34.
c Introduction, at 74.
d Introduction, at 79.