Discourse on Metaphysics.
" . . .
which is to happen to anyone is already virtually
included in his nature or concept, as all the
properties are contained in the definition of a circle .
. . "1a
" . . .
soul has the power of representing to itself any form or nature
whenever the occasion comes for thinking about it, and I think
that this activity of our soul is, so far as it expresses some
nature, form or essence, properly the idea of the
" . . .
already includes the
idea which is comprised in any
" . . . [T]he
individual concept of each person includes once for all everything
which can ever happen to him . . . "1d
"In order to call
anything possible it is enough that we are able to form a notion
of it . . . "1e
" . . . [N]othing
happens without a reason . . . "1f
"A body is an
aggregation of substances . . .
Each of these substances contains in its nature the law
of the continuous progression of its own workings
and all that has happened to it and all that
will happen to it."1g
"Our reasoning is
based upon two great principles: first, that of Contradiction
. . . And second, the principle of Sufficient Reason . . .
There are also two kinds of Truths: those of Reasoning
and those of Fact. The Truths of Reasoning are necessary,
and their opposite is impossible. Those of Fact, however, are contingent,
and their opposite is possible."1h
"Today . . . when it
has been learned through careful investigations made in
plant, insect, and animal life, that the organic bodies
of nature are never the product of chaos or
putrefaction, but always come from seeds in
which there was without doubt some preformation,
it has been decided that not only is the organic body
already present before conception, but also that a soul,
in a word, the animal itself, is also in this body . . .