The Origin of Satan.
"From the beginning . . . Israelite
tradition defines 'us'
in ethnic, political, and religious terms as 'the
people of Israel,' or
'the people of God,' as against
the (other) nations (in Hebrew, ha goyim), the alien
enemies of Israel, often characterized as inferior,
morally depraved, even potentially accursed. In
Genesis 16:12, an angel predicts that Ishmael although he
was Abraham's son, the progenitor of the Arab people, would be a
'wild ass of a man, with his hand
against everyone, and everyone's hand against him; and he shall
live at odds with all his kin.' The
story implies that his descendants, too, are hostile, no
better than animals."1a*
Edward Ayoub's Critique.)
"In biblical sources
the Hebrew term
satan describes an adversarial role."1b*
. . . Jesus had accused
'the Jews who had believed in him'
of plotting his murder: twice he charged that
'you seek to kill me.'
When they find his words incomprehensible, Jesus proceeds to
identify 'the Jews'
who had previously believed in him as Satan's own:
'You are of your father, the
devil; and you want to accomplish your father's desires. He
was a murderer from the beginning (8:44).'"1c
"Origen . . .
against charges of illegality, dares argue that people constrained
by an evil government are right not only to
disobey its laws but even to
revolt and to
assassinate tyrannical rulers."1d
Italics in the original.
The Origin of Satan. Elaine
Pagels, 1995. New York, NY: Vintage Books, a Division of Random
House, Inc., 1995.
a The Social History of Satan: From
the Hebrew Bible to the Gospels, at 36.
c Luke and
John Claim Israel's Legacy: The Split Widens, at 102.
Earthly Kingdom: Christians Against Pagans, at 147.